Barson, Michael, and Steven Heller. Red Scared! :The Commie Menace in Propaganda and Popular Culture. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2001.

“A must-have book which includes a comprehensive variety of movie posters, newspaper and comic book images, and propaganda posters. Barson and Heller analyze the visual style of American propaganda imagery with thorough timelines to guide the reader through Cold War history.”

Belmonte, Laura A. Selling the American Way :U.S. Propaganda and the Cold War. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

“Few books have been written about the reception of American propaganda in the United States during the early Cold War, and this book analyzes how American ideologies were conveyed and received through different types of media.”

Bernhard, Nancy E. US Television News and Cold War Propaganda, 1947-1960. Camridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

“Bernhard takes a look at the birth of television during the era of the Cold War and its main financial producer, the Defense department. Television was not only used for the broadcasting of news stories, but it was also used to show short propaganda films which were supposedly sources of information.”

Coulston, Jon. Dodge, Hazel. Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City. Oxford University Press 2000

“This book was used in the history section of our website for the purpose of exploring the various ways in which Cesar Augustus sought to solidify his position as emperor and to reassure the roman people that his would be a peaceful reign.”

Crowley, David, and Victoria and Albert Museum. Posters of the Cold War. Pbk ed. London: V&A Pub., 2008.

“Comprehensive book of international posters selected from 20 countries that were created during the Cold War era. Crowley demonstrates how most posters shared visual elements and were continuous in terms of typefaces. This book is highly recommended to graphic designers who are interested in propaganda poster design.”

Ellul, Jacques. Propaganda :The Formation of Men’s Attitudes. New York: Vintage Books, 1973; 1965.

“This book was predominantly used for its vast vocabulary and history of propaganda. Terms such as “vertical”, “black” and “the four myths” are crucial to understand in order to comprehend the effects and uses of propaganda. We did not come across any work as comprehensive as Ellul’s and truly appreciate both the information and questions it presents to the reader. Though some of Ellul’s sources are dated, his theories are anything but. The revelation that propaganda permeates every aspect of our lives is a painful one, but necessary. It is by no means an easy read, however making it to the end is a rewarding an enlightening experience.”

Jenks, John. British Propaganda and News Media in the Cold War. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006.

Kamalipour, Yahya R., and Nancy Snow. War, Media, and Propaganda :A Global Perspective. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004.

“Kamalipour and Snow provided me with an extensive body of research on embedded reporting.  The book concentrated heavily on the realities of embedded reporting and what consequences these realities had on the quality of news reporting.  In addition the book touched on the public reaction, both foreign and domestic, of the 9/11 attacks, and how these reactions propagated what came to be known as the war on terror.  The authors also draw on how these reactions helped steer the sentiments of the nation towards the war in Iraq.”

Lazarsfeld, Paul Felix., and Robert Merton. “Mass Communication, Popular Taste and Organized Social Action” Mass Communication, Schramm, Wilbur ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1969)

“The first half of this article addresses social concerns with the mass media, the social role of its machinery, its social function, the enforcing of social norms and Lazarsfeld’s theory of narcotizing dysfunction. These topics do relate to the subject of propaganda; however they were not directly useful to our focus of research. The second half of the article which addresses propaganda for social objectives presented three conditions that must be present for propaganda to prove effective. These were useful in our definitions section, as they gave a more specific example of the necessary elements of propaganda.”

Marlin, Randal. Propaganda and the Ethics of Persuasion. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press, 2002.

“This book was invaluable in our research. Marlin has compiled a selection of definitions, history and biographies all pertaining to propaganda and its successes through time. It was used for the history section of our website and helped (through its section on Jacques Ellul) to better understand the man we have studied all semester. The second half of this book was Marlin’s own theories on the subject of propaganda and those were researched in order to define Marlin’s point of view. The section describing the early history of propaganda gave great insight into the evolution and uses of it. This book was an easy read and highly enjoyable. We would suggest it as a second reading in future propaganda classes.”

Reeves, Nicholas. The Power of Film Propaganda :Myth Or Reality?. London; New York: Cassell, 1999.

“This book was very interesting and provided very thorough information about film in our WWII section. We focused mainly on the section about film in Germany pre-war. The sections were easy to interpret and when crossed referenced proved valid. The most interesting parts were how propaganda was used by the main government leaders in film to exclude certain ethnic groups from the industry. It was also very interesting to read about how certain laws were placed effect to make sure that whatever media content put out was first censored and scrutinized to protect Germany’s reputation. This book is excellent and highly recommended to those who wish to learn more about pre-war propaganda.”

Rutherford, Paul. Weapons of Mass Persuasion :Marketing the War Against Iraq. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004.

“This book was used primarily as a better way of understanding how the White House communicated with the public during the Iraq war.  It emphasized the used of slogans and shocking imagery on televisions as the main components for the decision to enter war with Iraq.  In addition the book provided strong evidence for the association of the Iraq war with the War on Terrorism.”

Schwoch, James. Global TV :New Media and the Cold War, 1946-69. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009.

“This book analyzes how new communication technologies improved the transmission of propaganda messages during the Cold War. With the new medium of television, the United States’ government was not only able to reach out to the American people, but also succeeded at transmitting its message around the world with satellite television.”

Short, K. R. M. Film and Radio Propaganda in World War II. London: Croom Helm, 1983.

“This book was quite interesting. We mainly focused on Radio in WWII and its effect on Germany. What was interesting was to learn about Hans Habe, a Hungarian captured by Germans to be released to Americans who used radio to control German Troupes. This book has absolutely amazing facts and is a quite enjoyable read. It is definitely recommended to students wishing to learn about propaganda through radio and to those wishing to discover some of the lesser known facts of WWII.”

Web Sites and Online Articles

Kelley, Matt. Pentagon Rolls out Stealth PR, USA TODAY Retrieved at on November 29th, 2009

“This website was used as a means of accentuating the pervasiveness of propaganda in the US army.  In addition, it illustrates the greater problem of the complacency of the general public in regards to their exposure to the propaganda itself.  By publishing this article in such a widely read newspaper, it is apparent the public passively accepted the reality of the PSYOP’s program. This article also demonstrates how a Communications Studies graduate (target audience) is well positioned to enter into the field of PSYOP’s, as private companies were contracted, by the US government, the task of influencing the opinions of individuals both foreign and domestic.”

White, Thomas H. United States Early Radio History, Radio During World War One (1914-1919) Retrieved at on November 24th, 2009

“This series of articles are quite interesting. They are mostly about WWI in diverse aspects of the war. The article we focused on was for radio use in the First World War. It was interesting to discover that government officials closed off radio frequencies in order to be able to stay in contact with their military informants. This book is definitely suggested in conjunction with the Nicolas Tesla documentaries on the creation of radio.”


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